The Science On a Sphere® Data Catalog is comprised of datasets from NOAA, NASA, universities, science centers and other organizations. The datasets are divided into the categories of Atmosphere, Ocean, Land, Astronomy, Models and Simulations, and Extras. The catalog is continually growing, so be sure to check back often.
Resource link: https://sos.noaa.gov/datasets/catalog/datasets?ordering=name
Startup link: Search Technology